World Analogue Television Standards and Waveforms

 

CCIR Transmission Systems and Radio Channel Allocations


Related sections: | E-mail me | Home Page | 405-Line Standard | Test Cards | Teletext |
World TV section: | Overview | Line Standards | Colour Standards | Transmission |
This page: | Contents | CCIR Systems | Bands | Radio Channels | UK Band Plan | Missing Channel 1 | Bookmarks |

Previous PagePage 3: Colour Standards

THE INFORMATION presented in this section has been compiled from several modern and historical sources and, errors and omissions excepted, the intention is to give a summary of the various standards at the time that they were current. Nevertheless, it is hoped that present-day standards are also accurately accounted for, and to this end any corrections would gratefully received (please E-mail me with any comments). Thanks are especially due to Mark Carver, Steve Palmano and Peter Vince for help and advice. Written sources consulted include [Electronics and] Wireless World and [Practical] Television magazines, textbooks by Benson KB and Whitaker JC, Carnt PS and Townsend GB, Holm WA, Hutson GH, Kerkhov F and Werner W, and technical publications from BBC, EBU, IBA and ITU.

I am particularly indebted to Peter Vince for recently spotting certain anomolies in the ITU document BT.470-6 from which many of the details in these pages were taken. It has been superseded by BT.1700 and BT.1701, and the values quoted in these pages are now verified by those, and by SMPTE 170M-1999 in relation to the NTSC standard. Many of the NTSC parameters feature recurring decimal fractions, and I have indicated these throughout with square brackets, for example fSC = 3 579 545.[45]Hz

I would add at this point that all the data contained on this page was obtained from printed sources and typed by me, one digit at a time, into raw html code, the framework of which was mostly generated by cutting and pasting existing code. Thus the scope for errors is huge, though I have managed to eradicate most of them. Nevertheless, if your browsing reveals anything that needs correcting, please do let me know - I shall be grateful rather than offended. There may be some delay in responding however - I don't check my 'E-mail me' mailbox all that often.



Contents

 

World Analogue Television Standards and Waveforms

Page 1:
Overview

Page 2:
Line Standards

Page 3:
Colour Standards

This page:
Transmission


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CCIR Transmission Systems

 

As defined by the Comité Consultatif International des Radio Communications - the International Radio Consultative Committee

A discussion of the characteristics of the MAC (Multiplexed Analogue Component) satellite transmission systems is on the Colour Standards page.

Some systems are, or were, sometimes known by the standards organisations that developed or introduced them. Hence System M is often known as NTSC, Systems B, G and H as CCIR and Systems D, K and K1 as OIRT (after the Organisation Internationale de Radiodiffusion et Télévision in Prague, the Eastern Bloc equivalent of the EBU).

System No of Lines per frame Bands Used Channel Width (MHz) Vision Bandwidth (MHz) Chroma Bandwidth (PAL, NTSC) Max Deviation (SECAM)
(kHz)
Main Sound-Vision Spacing (MHz) (M/M,S/M,N) Stereo/Additional Sound Carrier
(MHz)
Vestigial Side-band (MHz) Vision Modulation Sense Main Sound Carrier Mode
FM deviation (kHz), pre-emphasis (µs)
A 405 Ob vhf 5 3 n/a -3.5 - 0.75 Positive AM
B 625 vhf 7 5 4 433.61875 +570 -1 300
R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
+5.5 ±0.001 [1] Zweiton: FM at +5.742 (R/N) or
NICAM 728: DQPSK at +5.85 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2]
0.75 Negative FM ±50, 50
B1 625 vhf 8 5 4 433.61875 +570 -1 300 +5.5 ±0.001 [1] Zweiton: FM at +5.742 (R/N) or
NICAM 728: DQPSK at +5.85 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2]
0.75 Negative FM ±50, 50
C 625 vhf 7 5 n/a +5.5 - 0.75 Positive AM [7]
D 625 vhf, uhf 8 6 4 433.61875 +570 -1 300
R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
+6.5 ±0.001 Zweiton: FM at +6.742 (R/B) or
Zweiton (in eastern Europe): FM at +6.258 (R/B)
0.75 Negative FM ±50, 50
D1 625 vhf, uhf 8 5 4 433.61875 +570 -1 300 +6.5 ±0.001 Zweiton: FM at +6.742 (R/B) or
Zweiton (in eastern Europe): FM at +6.258 (R/B) or
NICAM 728 (in Poland): DQPSK at +5.85 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2]
0.75 Negative FM ±50, 50
E 819 Ob vhf 14 10.4 n/a Odd numbered channels: +11.15
Even numbered channels: -11.15
- 2 Positive AM
F 819 Ob vhf 7 5 n/a +5.5 - 0.75 Positive AM [7]
G 625 uhf 8 5 4 433.61875 +570 -1 300
R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
+5.5 ±0.001 [1] Zweiton: FM at +5.742 (R/B) or
NICAM 728: DQPSK at +5.85 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2]
0.75 Negative FM ±50, 50
H 625 uhf 8 5 4 433.61875 +570 -1 300
R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
+5.5 Zweiton: FM at +5.742 (R/B) or
NICAM 728: DQPSK at +5.85 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2]
1.25 Negative FM ±50, 50
I 625 vhf, uhf 8 5.5 4 433.61875 +1 066 -1 300 5.9996 ±0.0005 NICAM 728: DQPSK at +6.552 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2] 1.25 Negative FM ±50, 50
I-1 [3] 625 uhf 8 5.5 4 433.61875 +1 066 -1 300 5.9996 ±0.0005 NICAM 728: DQPSK at +6.552 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2] 0.75 Negative FM ±50, 50
K 625 uhf 8 6 4 433.61875 +570 -1 300
R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
+6.5 ±0.001 - 0.75 Negative FM ±50, 50
K1 625 vhf, uhf 8 6 R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
+6.5 - 1.25 Negative FM ±50, 50
L 819 [4]Ob, 625 vhf, uhf 8 6 [6] R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
+6.5 NICAM 728: DQPSK at +5.85 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2] 1.25 Positive AM
L' [5] 625 vhf 8 6 [6] R: 4 406.25 +350 ±18 -506 ±25
B: 4 250 +506 ±25 -350 ±18
-6.5 NICAM 728: DQPSK at -5.85 (L,R/M,N/M,D/D,D) [2] 1.25 Positive AM
M 525 vhf, uhf 6 4.2 3 579.5[45] +620 -1 300
M/PAL: 3 579.6[1188 81] +600 -1 300
+4.5 Zweiton: FM at +4.72 (S) or
FM/FM: Main carrier modulated with FM/FM multiplex (M,S) or
MTS: Main carrier modulated with FM/AM multiplex (M,N)
0.75 Negative FM ±25, 75
N 625 vhf, uhf 6 4.2 3 582.05625 +620 -1 300 +4.5 - 0.75 Negative FM ±25, 75

Key to abbreviations:

Ob Obsolete line standard
Soundtracks:
M Mono (mono soundtrack in first language or L+R of stereo soundtrack)
S L-R of stereo soundtrack
N Mono soundtrack in second language, or subsidiary audio channel
L Left-hand stereo channel
R Right-hand stereo channel
D Data
Modulation modes:
AM Amplitude Modulation (A3E)
FM Frequency Modulation (F3E)
DQPSK Differentially-encoded Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
NICAM 728 Near-Instantaneously Companded Audio Multiplex at 728 kilobits per second

Notes:

The aspect ratio of all systems was standardised at 4:3 in 1952. However, there is evidence to suggest that the aspect ratio of System A (405 lines) was originally 5:4 and that of System E (819 lines) was 4.12:3.

System M has approximately 60 (actually 59.940 when carrying NTSC colour) interlaced fields per second (two 262.5-line fields make one 525-line frame). All other systems have precisely 50 interlaced fields per second (nominal). In most cases the field and line frequencies are usually derived from the colour subcarrier master oscillator, though in monochrome days the field frequency tended to be locked to the national mains supply, in order to avoid moving hum patterns on receivers. In System M timings may be derived from a 4.5MHz master oscillator (this is the same as the vision-sound spacing).

[1] In New Zealand the sound-vision spacing is +5.4996 ±0.0005 and in Australia the tolerance may be +5.5 ±0.005.

[2] The NICAM digital audio system has four options: stereo sound, dual language, mono sound + data, and just data, of which only the first two are generally used. It is also possible to transmit a different soundtrack from that on the main mono carrier, though that is rarely done.

[3] System I-1 was adopted by those UK transmitters where a DVB-T multiplex had been introduced on the lower adjacent channel to an existing analogue allocation. The vestigial lower vision sideband of 0.75MHz offers reduced adjacent channel interference in comparison with the 1.25MHz of System I.

[4] The French first programme was duplicated via low-power relays in black-and-white on 819 lines on System L uhf for a while, albeit with a reduced horizontal resolution compared to the vhf System E transmissions.

[5] System L' is used for the Band I transmissions where the sound carrier is at -6.5MHz relative to the vision carrier instead of +6.5MHz as used in System L elsewhere.

[6] In France, a digital carrier 5.85MHz away from the vision carrier may be used in addition to the main sound carrier. It is modulated in differentially encoded QPSK with a 728kbit/s sound and data multiplexer capable of carrying two sound channels. The nominal width of the main sideband is limited to 5.1MHz and the depth of video modulation in the radiated signal is reduced to leave a residual radiated carrier level of 5 ±2%.

[7] In Belgium, in Systems C and F, AM sound was used with 50µs pre-emphasis.

Video and carrier levels

System Baseband composite video as a percentage of blanking level to peak white Modulated composite video as a percentage of peak carrier amplitude Ratio of ERP of vision carrier to primary sound carrier
Sync
level
Blkg Diff between Black and Blanking levels Peak
White
Peak incl
Chroma
Sync
level
Blanking Diff between Black and Blanking levels Peak White
A -43 0 0 100 - 0 30 0 100 4/1
B, B1, G -43 0 0 100 133 [1] 100 75 ±2.5 [2] 0 to 2 (nominal) 10 to 15 [2], [3] 20/1 to 10/1 [4], [5], [6]
C, E, F -43 (-33) [18] 0 0 100 - <3 30 (25) [18] 0 100 4/1
D, K -43 0 0 to 7 100 115 [7],
133 [1]
100 75 ±2.5 0 to 4.5 [8] 10 to 15 [9] 10/1 to 5/1 [5], [10]
D1 -43 0 0 100 133 [1] 100 75 ±2.5 0 to 4.5 (nominal) 10 to 15 20/1 to 10/1
H -43 0 0 100 - 100 72.5 to 77.5 0 to 7 10 to 12.5 5/1 to 10/1
I -43 0 0 100 133 100 76 ±2 0 (nominal) 20 ±2 5/1, 10/1 [11], 20/1 [12]
K1 -43 0 0 (mono)
0 to 7 (colour)
100 115 [7] 100 76 ±2.5 0 to 4.5 10 to 12.5 10/1
L, L' -43 0 0 (mono)
0 to 7 (colour)
100 124 [7] <6 [13] 30 ±2 0 to 4.5 100 (110 incl subcarrier) 10/1, 10/1 to 40/1 [13]
M -40 0 7.5 ±2.5 [14] 100 120 100 72.5 to 77.5 2.88 to 6.75 [15] 10 to 15 10/1 to 5/1 [16]
N [17] -40
(-43)
0 7.5 ±2.5
(0)
100 - 100 72.5 to 77.5
(75 ±2.5)
2.88 to 6.75
(0)
10 to 15
(10 to 12.5)
10/1 to 5/1

Notes:

[1] Value applies to PAL signals.

[2] Australia uses the nominal modulation levels specified for system I.

[3] Italy is considering the possibility of controlling the peak white-level after weighting the video frequency signal by a low-pass filter, so as to take account only of those spectrum components of the signal that are likely to produce inter-carrier noise in certain receivers when the nominal level is exceeded.

[4] In the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Switzerland a system of two sound carriers is used, the frequency of the second carrier being 242.1875 kHz above the frequency of the first sound carrier. The ratio between vision/sound e.r.p. for this second carrier is 100/1. For stereophonic sound transmissions a similar system is used in Australia with vision/sound power ratios being 20/1 and 100/1 for the first and second sound carriers respectively.

[5] In Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden and Spain a system of two sound carriers is used. In Iceland, Norway and Poland the same system is being introduced. The second carrier is 5.85 MHz above the vision carrier and is DQPSK modulated with 728 kbit/s sound and data multiplex. The ratios between vision/sound power are 20/1 and 100/1 for the first and second carrier respectively.

[6] Studies in India confirm the suitability of a 20/1 ratio of effective radiated powers of vision and sound. This ratio still enables the introduction of a second sound carrier.

[7] Values apply to SECAM signals. For programme exchange the value is 115.

[8] In the People's Republic of China, the values 0 to 5 have been adopted.

[9] The former USSR has adopted the value 15 ± 2%. A new parameter "white level with sub-carrier" is to be specified. For that parameter, the former USSR has adopted the value of 7 ± 2%.

[10] In the People's Republic of China, the value 10/1 has been adopted.

[11] The ratio 10/1 is used in the Republic of South Africa.

[12] The ratio 20:1 is used in the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, a system of two sound carriers is used. The second sound carrier is 6.552 MHz above the vision carrier and is DQPSK modulated with a 728 kbit/s sound and data multiplex able to carry two sound channels. The ratio between vision and sound e.r.p. for the second carrier is 100/1.

[13] In France, the ratios 10/1 and 40/1 are used. In France, a digital carrier 5.85 MHz away from the vision carrier may be used in addition to the main sound carrier. It is modulated in differentially encoded QPSK with a 728 kbit/s sound and data multiplexer capable of carrying two sound channels. The nominal width of the main sideband is limited to 5.1 MHz. With the L standard, the depth of video modulation in the radiated signal is reduced to leave a residual radiated carrier level of 5 ± 2%.

[14] In Japan values 0 +10 -0 are used.

[15] In Japan, the values of 0 to 6.75 have been adopted.

[16] In Japan, a ratio of 1/0.15 to 1/0.35 is used. In the United States, the sound carrier e.r.p. is not to exceed 22% of the peak authorized vision e.r.p.

[17] The values in brackets apply to the combination N/PAL used in Argentina.

[18] The values in brackets are those listed in 1959 tables. Later tables show the video/sync ratio as 7/3 as for all other non-525-line standards.



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Broadcasting bands

 

on vhf (30MHz - 300MHz)
and uhf (300MHz - 3GHz)


Band Region 1
(Europe, Eurasia and Africa)
(MHz)
Region 2
(The Americas)
(MHz)
Region 3
(Asia and Australasia)
(MHz)
I 41 - 68 54 - 72 and 76 - 88 44 - 50 and 54 - 68
II 87.5 - 108 88 - 108 87 - 108
III 162 - 230 174 - 216 170 - 216
IV 470 - 590 470 - 590 470 - 585
V 610 - 940 614 - 890 610 - 960



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Radio Channels

 

THE FOLLOWING details are based on European Broadcasting Union transmitter lists and other publications from the early nineteen seventies, and include frequencies and line standards that have since been abandoned. Most countries have adopted uhf-only frequency plans in recent years, and of course many are in the process of closing down analogue services altogether, and in their place transmitting digital services in 8MHz-wide multiplexes on the existing uhf channel numbers.

VHF channels:

'Hyperband' cable channels:

  • System B 625 lines 7MHz
  • Systems B, D, G, I, K, L 625 lines 7/8MHz

UHF channels:



Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
B1 41.25 - 46.25
(originally 41.25 - 48.00 DSB)
45.00 41.50
B2 48.00 - 53.00 51.75 48.25
B3 53.00 - 58.00 56.75 53.25
B4 58.00 - 63.00 61.75 58.25
B5 63.00 - 68.00 66.75 63.25
B6 176.00 - 181.00 179.75 176.25
B7 181.00 - 186.00 184.75 181.25
B8 186.00 - 191.00 189.75 186.25
B9 191.00 - 196.00 194.75 191.25
B10 196.00 - 201.00 199.75 196.25
B11 201.00 - 206.00 204.75 201.25
B12 206.00 - 211.00 209.75 206.25
B13 211.00 - 216.00 214.75 211.25
B14 216.00 - 221.00 219.75 216.25


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
1 58.00 - 65.00 59.25 64.75
2 144.00 - 151.00 145.25 150.75
3 154.00 - 161.00 155.25 160.75
E5 174.00 - 181.00 175.25 180.75
E6 181.00 - 188.00 182.25 187.75
E8 195.00 - 202.00 196.25 201.75
E11 216.00 - 223.00 217.25 222.75

Notes:

Transmitters were operational on the above channels in 1959. During the 1960s channels 1 to 3 were deleted and channels E3 to E12 adopted.


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
E1 [1] 40.00 - 47.00 41.25 46.75
E1A [1] 41.00 - 48.00 42.25 47.75
E2 47.00 - 54.00 48.25 53.75
E2A [2] 48.25 - 55.50 49.75 55.25
E3 54.00 - 61.00 55.25 60.75
E4 61.00 - 68.00 62.25 67.75
E4A [3] 81.00 - 88.00 82.25 87.75
E5 174.00 - 181.00 175.25 180.75
E6 181.00 - 188.00 182.25 187.75
E7 188.00 - 195.00 189.25 194.75
E8 195.00 - 202.00 196.25 201.75
E9 202.00 - 209.00 203.25 208.75
E10 209.00 - 216.00 210.25 215.75
E11 216.00 - 223.00 217.25 222.75
E12 223.00 - 230.00 224.25 229.75

Notes:

[1] There has been no channel E1 allocation in Europe - see Missing Channels?.

[2] E2A is identical to the OIRT allocation R1 and was used by an Austrian transmitter at Jauerling.

[3] E4A is identical to the Italian allocation IC and was used by a few transmitters in other countries.



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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
IA 52.50 - 59.50 53.75 59.25
IB 61.00 - 68.00 62.25 67.75
IC 81.00 - 88.00 82.25 87.75
ID 174.00 - 181.00 175.25 180.75
IE 182.50 - 189.50 183.75 189.25
IF 191.00 - 198.00 192.25 197.75
IG 200.00 - 207.00 201.25 206.75
IH 209.00 - 216.00 210.25 215.75
IH1 216.00 - 223.00 217.25 222.75


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
0 45.00 - 52.00 46.25 51.75
1 56.00 - 63.00 57.25 62.75
2 63.00 - 70.00 64.25 69.75
3 [1] 85.00 - 92.00 86.25 91.75
4 [1] 94.00 - 101.00 95.25 100.75
5 [1] 101.00 - 108.00 102.25 107.75
5A 137.00 - 144.00 138.25 143.75
6 174.00 - 181.00 175.25 180.75
7 181.00 - 188.00 182.25 187.75
8 188.00 - 195.00 189.25 194.75
9 195.00 - 202.00 196.25 201.75
9A [2] 202.00 - 209.00 203.25 208.75
10 208.00 - 215.00 209.25 214.75
10 [2] 209.00 - 216.00 210.25 215.75
11 215.00 - 222.00 216.25 221.75
11 [2] 216.00 - 223.00 217.25 222.75
12 [2] 223.00 - 230.00 224.25 229.75

Notes:

[1] Channels 3, 4 and 5 were to due be cleared during 1993-96 to make way for FM radio stations in Band II. In the event the clearance took rather longer than that, and many stations on channel 3 still remained, along with a couple on 4 and 5, until the analogue closedown was completed in 2013, since when only channels 6 and above have been used.

[2] New/amended channel allocations from 1993. Channels 10 and 11 were shifted up in frequency by 1MHz to make room for channel 9A. The frequencies of existing stations did not change; only new ones used the new allocations. Digital multiplexes on channels 10 and 11 are using the new channel boundaries.



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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
1 44.00 - 51.00 45.25 50.75
2 54.00 - 61.00 55.25 60.75
3 61.00 - 68.00 62.25 67.75
4 174.00 - 181.00 175.25 180.75
5 181.00 - 188.00 182.25 187.75
6 188.00 - 195.00 189.25 194.75
7 195.00 - 202.00 196.25 201.75
8 202.00 - 209.00 203.25 208.75
9 209.00 - 216.00 210.25 215.75
10 [1] 216.00 - 223.00 217.25 222.75
11 [2] 223.00 - 230.00 224.25 229.75

Notes:

[1] Channel 10 was added during the 1980s

[2] Channel 11 was added during the 1990s


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
M4 162.00 - 169.00 163.25 168.75
M5 170.00 - 177.00 171.25 176.75
M6 178.00 - 185.00 179.25 184.75
M7 186.00 - 193.00 187.25 192.75
M8 194.00 - 201.00 195.25 200.75
M9 202.00 - 209.00 203.25 208.75
M10 210.00 - 217.00 211.25 216.75


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
R1 48.50 - 56.50 49.75 56.25
R2 58.00 - 66.00 59.25 65.75
R3 76.00 - 84.00 77.25 83.75
R4 84.00 - 92.00 85.25 91.75
R5 92.00 - 100.00 93.25 99.75
R6 174.00 - 182.00 175.25 181.75
R7 182.00 - 190.00 183.25 189.75
R8 190.00 - 198.00 191.25 197.75
R9 198.00 - 206.00 199.25 205.75
R10 206.00 - 214.00 207.25 213.75
R11 214.00 - 222.00 215.25 221.75
R12 222.00 - 230.00 223.25 229.75


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
C1 48.50 - 56.50 49.75 56.25
C2 56.50 - 64.50 57.75 64.25
C3 58.00 - 66.00 59.25 65.75
C4 76.00 - 84.00 77.25 83.75
C5 84.00 - 92.00 85.25 91.75


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
F1[1] 41.75 - 49.75 (DSB) 46.00 42.00
F2 41.00 - 54.15 52.40 41.25
F4 54.15 - 67.30 65.55 54.40
F5 162.25 -175.40 164.00 175.15
F6 162.00 - 175.15 173.40 162.25
F7 175.40 - 188.55 177.15 188.30
F8A 174.00 - 188.00 185.25 174.10
F8 175.15 - 188.30 186.55 175.40
F9 188.55 - 201.70 190.30 201.45
F10 188.30 - 201.45 199.70 188.55
F11 201.70 - 214.85 203.45 214.60
F12 201.45 - 214.60 212.85 201.70

Notes:

[1] Channel F1 was used for the 455-line and 441-line services from the Eiffel Tower in Paris. See Missing Channel 1.

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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
IA 44.50 - 52.50 45.75 51.75
IB 52.50 - 60.50 53.75 59.75
IC 60.50 - 68.50 61.75 67.75
ID 174.00 - 182.00 175.25 181.25
IE 182.00 - 190.00 183.25 189.25
IF 190.00 - 198.00 191.25 197.25
IG 198.00 - 206.00 199.25 205.25
IH 206.00 - 214.00 207.25 213.25
II 214.00 - 222.00 215.25 221.25
IJ 222.00 - 230.00 223.25 229.25


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
4 174.00 - 182.00 175.25 181.25
5 182.00 - 190.00 183.25 189.25
6 190.00 - 198.00 191.25 197.25
7 198.00 - 206.00 199.25 205.25
8 206.00 - 214.00 207.25 213.25
9 214.00 - 222.00 215.25 221.25
10 222.00 - 230.00 223.25 229.25
11 230.00 - 238.00 231.25 237.25
13 246.00 - 254.00 247.43 253.43


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
K4 174.00 - 182.00 175.25 181.75
K5 182.00 - 190.00 183.25 189.75
K6 190.00 - 198.00 191.25 197.75
K7 198.00 - 206.00 199.25 205.75
K8 206.00 - 214.00 207.25 213.75
K9 214.00 - 222.00 215.25 221.75


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
L1 [1] 41.00 - 49.00 47.75 41.25 [2]
L2 49.00 - 57.00 55.75 49.25 [2]
L3 53.75 - 61.75 60.50 54.00 [2]
L4 57.00 - 65.00 63.75 57.25 [2]
L5 174.75 - 182.75 176.00 182.50
L6 182.75 - 190.75 184.00 190.50
L7 190.75 - 198.75 192.00 198.50
L8 198.75 - 206.75 200.00 206.50
L9 206.75 - 214.75 208.00 214.50
L10 214.75 - 222.75 216.00 222.50

Notes:

[1] Channel L1 appears on some receivers, but nowhere else. No transmitters use it and it does not appear in allocation lists. See Missing Channels?.

[2] Band I transmitters use System L' in which sound carriers are 6.5MHz below their respective vision carriers instead of above, as in System L.



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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
A1 [1] (44.00 - 50.00) (45.25) (49.75)
A2 54.00 - 60.00 55.25 59.75
A3 60.00 - 66.00 61.25 65.75
A4 66.00 - 72.00 67.25 71.75
A5 [2] 76.00 - 82.00 77.25 81.75
A6 [2] 82.00 - 88.00 83.25 87.75
A7 174.00 - 180.00 175.25 179.75
A8 180.00 - 186.00 181.25 185.75
A9 186.00 - 192.00 187.25 191.75
A10 192.00 - 198.00 193.25 197.75
A11 198.00 - 204.00 199.25 203.75
A12 204.00 - 210.00 205.25 209.75
A13 210.00 - 216.00 211.25 215.75

Notes:

[1] Channel A1 was finally withdrawn on 14 June 1948 and allocated to fixed and mobile services - see Missing Channels?.

[2] In Alaska and Hawaii channels 5 and 6 are allocated to non-broadcast services.



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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
J1 90.00 - 96.00 91.25 95.75
J2 96.00 - 102.00 97.25 101.75
J3 102.00 - 108.00 103.25 107.75
J4 170.00 - 176.00 171.25 175.75
J5 176.00 - 182.00 177.25 181.75
J6 182.00 - 188.00 183.25 187.75
J7 188.00 - 194.00 189.25 193.75
J8 192.00 - 198.00 193.25 197.75
J9 198.00 - 204.00 199.25 203.75
J10 204.00 - 210.00 205.25 209.75
J11 210.00 - 216.00 211.25 215.75
J12 216.00 - 222.00 217.25 221.75


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
S1 69.00 - 76.00 70.25 75.75
S2 76.00 - 83.00 77.25 82.75
S3 83.00 - 90.00 84.25 89.75
M2 111.00 - 118.00 112.25 117.75
M3 118.00 - 125.00 119.25 124.75
M4 125.00 - 132.00 126.25 131.75
M5 132.00 - 139.00 133.25 138.75
M6 139.00 - 146.00 140.25 145.75
M7 146.00 - 153.00 147.25 152.75
M8 153.00 - 160.00 154.25 159.75
M9 160.00 - 167.00 161.25 166.75
M10 167.00 - 174.00 168.25 173.75
U1 230.00 - 237.00 231.25 236.75
U2 237.00 - 244.00 238.25 243.75
U3 244.00 - 251.00 245.25 250.75
U4 251.00 - 258.00 252.25 257.75
U5 258.00 - 265.00 259.25 264.75
U6 265.00 - 272.00 266.25 271.75
U7 272.00 - 279.00 273.25 278.75
U8 279.00 - 286.00 288.25 285.75
U9 286.00 - 293.00 287.25 292.75


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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main SoundCarrier (MHz)
B, D, G, I, K, L B, G I D, K, L
S2 111.00 - 118.00 112.25 117.75 - -
S3 118.00 - 125.00 119.25 124.75 - -
S4 125.00 - 132.00 126.25 131.75 - -
S5 132.00 - 139.00 133.25 138.75 - -
S6 139.00 - 146.00 140.25 145.75 - -
S7 146.00 - 153.00 147.25 152.75 - -
S8 153.00 - 160.00 154.25 159.75 - -
S9 160.00 - 167.00 161.25 166.75 - -
S10 167.00 - 174.00 168.25 173.75 - -
S11 230.00 - 237.00 231.25 236.75 - -
S12 237.00 - 244.00 238.25 243.75 - -
S13 244.00 - 251.00 245.25 250.75 - -
S14 251.00 - 258.00 252.25 257.75 - -
S15 258.00 - 265.00 259.25 264.75 - -
S16 265.00 - 272.00 266.25 271.75 - -
S17 272.00 - 279.00 273.25 278.75 - -
S18 279.00 - 286.00 280.25 285.75 - -
S19 286.00 - 293.00 287.25 292.75 - -
S20 293.00 - 300.00 294.25 299.75 - -
S21 302.00 - 310.00 303.25 308.75 309.25 309.75
S22 310.00 - 318.00 311.25 316.75 307.25 307.75
S23 318.00 - 326.00 319.25 324.75 325.25 325.75
S24 326.00 - 334.00 325.25 332.75 333.25 333.75
S25 334.00 - 342.00 335.25 340.75 341.25 341.75
S26 342.00 - 350.00 343.25 348.75 349.25 349.75
S27 350.00 - 358.00 351.25 356.75 357.25 357.75
S28 358.00 - 366.00 359.25 364.75 365.25 365.75
S29 366.00 - 374.00 367.25 372.75 373.25 373.75
S30 374.00 - 382.00 375.25 380.75 381.25 381.75
S31 382.00 - 390.00 383.25 398.75 399.25 399.75
S32 390.00 - 398.00 391.25 396.75 397.25 397.75
S33 398.00 - 406.00 399.25 404.75 405.25 405.75
S34 406.00 - 414.00 407.25 412.75 413.25 413.75
S35 414.00 - 422.00 415.25 420.75 421.25 421.75
S36 422.00 - 430.00 423.25 438.75 439.25 439.75
S37 430.00 - 438.00 431.25 436.75 437.25 437.75

Notes:

System B (7MHz channel spacing) is used on frequencies below 300MHz (S2-S20), and Systems D, G, I, K and L (8MHz channel spacing) on higher frequencies (S21-S37).



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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
27 [1] 520.00 - 526.00 - -
28 526.00 - 533.00 527.25 532.75
29 533.00 - 540.00 534.25 539.75
30 540.00 - 547.00 541.25 546.75
31 547.00 - 554.00 548.25 553.75
32 554.00 - 561.00 555.25 560.75
33 561.00 - 568.00 562.25 567.75
34 568.00 - 575.00 569.25 574.75
35 575.00 - 582.00 576.25 581.75
36 582.00 - 589.00 583.25 588.75
37 589.00 - 596.00 590.25 595.75
38 596.00 - 603.00 597.25 602.75
39 603.00 - 610.00 604.25 609.75
40 610.00 - 617.00 611.25 616.75
41 617.00 - 624.00 618.25 623.75
42 624.00 - 631.00 625.25 630.75
43 631.00 - 638.00 632.25 637.75
44 638.00 - 645.00 639.25 644.75
45 645.00 - 652.00 646.25 651.75
46 652.00 - 659.00 653.25 658.75
47 659.00 - 666.00 660.25 665.75
48 666.00 - 673.00 667.25 672.75
49 673.00 - 680.00 674.25 679.75
50 680.00 - 687.00 681.25 686.75
51 687.00 - 694.00 688.25 693.75
52 [2] 694.00 - 701.00 695.25 700.75
53 [2] 701.00 - 708.00 702.25 707.75
54 [2] 708.00 - 715.00 709.25 714.75
55 [2] 715.00 - 722.00 716.25 721.75
56 [2] 722.00 - 729.00 723.25 728.75
57 [2] 729.00 - 736.00 740.25 735.75
58 [2] 736.00 - 743.00 737.25 742.75
59 [2] 743.00 - 750.00 744.25 749.75
60 [2] 750.00 - 757.00 751.25 756.75
61 [2] 757.00 - 764.00 758.25 763.75
62 [2] 764.00 - 771.00 765.25 770.75
63 [2] 771.00 - 778.00 772.25 777.75
64 [2] 778.00 - 785.00 779.25 784.75
65 [2] 785.00 - 792.00 786.25 791.75
66 [2] 792.00 - 799.00 793.25 798.75
67 [2] 799.00 - 806.00 800.25 805.75
68 [2] 806.00 - 813.00 807.25 812.75
69 [2] 813.00 - 820.00 814.25 819.75

Notes:

[1] Channel 27 is only 6MHz wide and therefore too narrow to accommodate a System G signal. Options are to increase the allocation to 7MHz or use the channel for data broadcasting.

[2] Channels 52 to 69 inclusive will be allocated to other services from 2014 once all the analogue transmitters are closed down.



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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main SoundCarrier (MHz)
G, H, I, K, K1, L G, H I K, K1, L
E21 470.00 - 478.00 471.25 476.75 477.25 477.75
E22 478.00 - 486.00 479.25 484.75 485.25 485.75
E23 486.00 - 494.00 487.25 492.75 493.25 493.75
E24 494.00 - 502.00 495.25 500.75 501.25 501.75
E25 502.00 - 510.00 503.25 508.75 509.25 509.75
E26 510.00 - 518.00 511.25 516.75 517.25 517.75
E27 518.00 - 526.00 519.25 524.75 525.25 525.75
E28 526.00 - 534.00 527.25 532.75 533.25 533.75
E29 534.00 - 542.00 535.25 540.75 541.25 541.75
E30 542.00 - 550.00 543.25 548.75 549.25 549.75
E31 550.00 - 558.00 551.25 556.75 577.25 577.75
E32 558.00 - 566.00 559.25 564.75 565.25 565.75
E33 566.00 - 574.00 567.25 572.75 573.25 573.75
E34 574.00 - 582.00 575.25 580.75 581.25 581.75
E35 [1] 582.00 - 590.00 583.25 588.75 589.25 589.75
E36 [1] 590.00 - 598.00 591.25 596.75 597.25 597.75
E37 [1] 598.00 - 606.00 599.25 604.75 605.25 605.75
E38 [2] 606.00 - 614.00 607.25 612.75 613.25 613.75
E39 614.00 - 622.00 615.25 620.75 621.25 621.75
E40 622.00 - 630.00 623.25 628.75 629.25 629.75
E41 630.00 - 638.00 631.25 636.75 637.25 637.75
E42 638.00 - 646.00 639.25 644.75 645.25 645.75
E43 646.00 - 654.00 647.25 652.75 653.25 653.75
E44 654.00 - 662.00 655.25 660.75 661.25 661.75
E45 662.00 - 670.00 663.25 668.75 669.25 669.75
E46 670.00 - 678.00 671.25 676.75 677.25 677.75
E47 678.00 - 686.00 679.25 684.75 685.25 685.75
E48 686.00 - 694.00 687.25 692.75 693.25 693.75
E49 694.00 - 702.00 695.25 700.75 701.25 701.75
E50 702.00 - 710.00 703.25 708.75 709.25 709.75
E51 710.00 - 718.00 711.25 716.75 717.25 717.75
E52 718.00 - 726.00 719.25 724.75 725.25 725.75
E53 726.00 - 734.00 727.25 732.75 733.25 733.75
E54 734.00 - 742.00 735.25 740.75 741.25 741.75
E55 742.00 - 750.00 743.25 748.75 749.25 749.75
E56 750.00 - 758.00 751.25 756.75 757.25 757.75
E57 758.00 - 766.00 759.25 764.75 765.25 765.75
E58 766.00 - 774.00 767.25 772.75 773.25 773.75
E59 774.00 - 782.00 775.25 780.75 781.25 781.75
E60 782.00 - 790.00 783.25 788.75 789.25 789.75
E61 790.00 - 798.00 791.25 796.75 797.25 797.75
E62 798.00 - 806.00 799.25 804.75 805.25 805.75
E63 806.00 - 814.00 807.25 812.75 813.25 813.75
E64 814.00 - 822.00 815.25 820.75 821.25 821.75
E65 822.00 - 830.00 823.25 828.75 829.25 829.75
E66 830.00 - 838.00 831.25 836.75 837.25 837.75
E67 838.00 - 846.00 839.25 844.75 845.25 845.75
E68 846.00 - 854.00 847.25 852.75 853.25 853.75
E69 [3] (854.00 - 862.00) (855.25) (860.75) (861.25) (861.75)

Notes:

In Germany, 525/60 stations operated by the American Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) have been allocated in "E" channels designated System G/NTSC with 4.5MHz v/s spacing.

In New Zealand, only channels E27 - E62 inclusive are allocated (System G/PAL).

In the UK, following the closure of analogue services, only channels E21 - E30 and E39 - E60 inclusive will be allocated for public service broadcast (DVB-T) use (E61-E69 removed by 2013, E31-E37 proposed to be used for an interim national HDTV network until removal around 2018 - see UK Band Plan).

[1] Channels E35 - E37 were not allocated in the UK until 1997 when the fifth terrestrial analogue chain (Channel 5) began using E35 and E37. E35 was previously used for radio microphones.

[2] Channel E38 is reserved for radio astronomy.

[3] Channel E69 has rarely been allocated to a tv transmitter (a Swiss pay channel is one exception). It is reserved for use by broadcasters for their own internal purposes, for example radio microphones in television productions. The UK DTI approved the allocation for radio microphone use in 1992



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Channel Channel Limits (MHz) Vision Carrier (MHz) Main Sound Carrier (MHz)
A14/J13 470.00 - 476.00 471.25 475.75
A15/J14 476.00 - 482.00 477.25 481.75
A16/J15 482.00 - 488.00 483.25 487.75
A17/J16 488.00 - 494.00 489.25 493.75
A18/J17 494.00 - 500.00 495.25 499.75
A19/J18 500.00 - 506.00 501.25 505.75
A20/J19 506.00 - 512.00 507.25 511.75
A21/J20 512.00 - 518.00 513.25 517.75
A22/J21 518.00 - 524.00 519.25 523.75
A23/J22 524.00 - 530.00 525.25 529.75
A24/J23 530.00 - 536.00 531.25 535.75
A25/J24 536.00 - 542.00 537.25 541.75
A26/J25 542.00 - 548.00 543.25 547.75
A27/J26 548.00 - 554.00 549.25 553.75
A28/J27 554.00 - 560.00 555.25 559.75
A29/J28 560.00 - 566.00 561.25 565.75
A30/J29 566.00 - 572.00 567.25 571.75
A31/J30 572.00 - 578.00 573.25 577.75
A32/J31 578.00 - 584.00 579.25 583.75
A33/J32 584.00 - 590.00 585.25 589.75
A34/J33 590.00 - 596.00 591.25 595.75
A35/J34 596.00 - 602.00 597.25 601.75
A36/J35 602.00 - 608.00 603.25 607.75
A37/J36 [1] 608.00 - 614.00 609.25 613.75
A38/J37 614.00 - 620.00 615.25 619.75
A39/J38 620.00 - 626.00 621.25 625.75
A40/J39 626.00 - 632.00 627.25 631.75
A41/J40 632.00 - 638.00 633.25 637.75
A42/J41 638.00 - 644.00 639.25 643.75
A43/J42 644.00 - 650.00 645.25 649.75
A44/J43 650.00 - 656.00 651.25 655.75
A45/J44 656.00 - 662.00 657.25 661.75
A46/J45 662.00 - 668.00 663.25 667.75
A47/J46 668.00 - 674.00 669.25 673.75
A48/J47 674.00 - 680.00 675.25 679.75
A49/J48 680.00 - 686.00 681.25 685.75
A50/J49 686.00 - 692.00 687.25 691.75
A51/J51 692.00 - 698.00 693.25 697.75
A52/J51 698.00 - 704.00 699.25 703.75
A53/J52 704.00 - 710.00 705.25 709.75
A54/J53 710.00 - 716.00 711.25 715.75
A55/J54 716.00 - 722.00 717.25 721.75
A56/J55 722.00 - 728.00 723.25 727.75
A57/J56 728.00 - 734.00 729.25 733.75
A58/J57 734.00 - 740.00 735.25 739.75
A59/J58 740.00 - 746.00 741.25 745.75
A60/J59 746.00 - 752.00 747.25 751.75
A61/J60 752.00 - 758.00 753.25 757.75
A62/J61 758.00 - 764.00 759.25 763.75
A63/J62 764.00 - 770.00 765.25 769.75
A64 770.00 - 776.00 771.25 775.75
A65 776.00 - 782.00 777.25 781.75
A66 782.00 - 788.00 783.25 787.75
A67 788.00 - 794.00 789.25 793.75
A68 794.00 - 800.00 795.25 799.75
A69 800.00 - 806.00 801.25 805.75
A70 [2] 806.00 - 812.00 807.25 811.75
A71 [2] 812.00 - 818.00 813.25 807.75
A72 [2] 818.00 - 824.00 809.25 823.75
A73 [2] 824.00 - 830.00 825.25 829.75
A74 [2] 830.00 - 836.00 831.25 835.75
A75 [2] 836.00 - 842.00 837.25 841.75
A76 [2] 842.00 - 848.00 843.25 847.75
A77 [2] 848.00 - 854.00 849.25 853.75
A78 [2] 854.00 - 860.00 855.25 859.75
A79 [2] 860.00 - 866.00 861.25 865.75
A80 [2] 866.00 - 872.00 867.25 871.75
A81 [2] 872.00 - 878.00 873.25 877.75
A82 [2] 878.00 - 884.00 879.25 883.75
A83 [2] 884.00 - 890.00 885.25 889.75

Notes:

In Japan the channel numbers are all one less than the equivalent elsewhere and they lie in the range J13-J62.

[1] In the USA channel A37 is reserved for radio astronomy.

[2] In the USA frequencies 806-947MHz were reallocated for land-based mobile use from 1970.




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United Kingdom uhf band plan and aerial groups

 

from System I to DVB-T2


When the UK uhf 625-line television service began in 1964 it was envisaged that a network of transmitters would be set up to carry four programmes each. Each station would eventually carry all the services of the two incumbent broadcasters (BBC and ITA/IBA) on a "landlord/tenant" basis, alternating with each new installation. Since many of the first uhf stations would be built on exisiting ITA Band III sites they would continue to be the landlord there. At first only BBC2 was carried on uhf, then from 1969 the existing vhf 405-lines monochrome BBC1 and ITV services were duplicated in 625-lines PAL colour and from 1982 Channel Four was added. For some reason the mapping of programme to channel has not been in ascending order - ie BBC1, BBC2, ITV, C4 - at each transmitter. This would have made tuning (both manual and automatic) of receivers much easier.

Transmitting four high-powered signals from a single station is not an easy proposition. Because of the super-heterodyne system used in television receivers certain combinations of input frequencies can lead to interference, either in the same receiver or in nearby ones. With the intermediate frequencies and channel spacing used in Europe (vision 39.5MHz, sound 33.0/33.5/34.0MHz and 8MHz channel spacing) it can be shown that simultaneous signals on frequencies spaced five or nine channels apart should be avoided. (For the NTSC system, the 'forbidden' channels are plus or minus 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 14 and 15.) This led to a set of nine available channel cluster patterns, grouped into three separate frequency ranges, with the channels spaced at either N, N+3, N+6 and N+10 or N, N+4, N+7 and N+10, that is an overall range of eleven channels for each cluster.

Therefore only three sizes of aerial needed to be manufactured, and these were called Group A, marked red, channels 21-34, Group B, marked yellow, channels 39-51 and Group C, marked green, channels 52-68. As the network spread, however, it became necessary to depart from the nine clusters, and use a channel-spread greater than eleven at some transmitters. Further aerial groups were added: Group D, marked blue, channels 49-68 and Group E, marked brown, channels 39-68. Group C was changed to cover channels 50-66 before Groups C and D were eventually merged to give Group C/D, marked green, channels 48-68. Group K, marked grey, channels 21-48, is used widely on the Continent, but also suits some UK situations.

When the fifth uhf network, Channel Five, began broadcasting in 1997, using mainly the previously vacant channels 35 and 37, aerial Groups A, B and E were enlarged to include those channels. Already, some four-channel transmitters required an aerial covering the whole of Bands IV and V (Group W, marked black) to be used, and the addition of Channel Five at some stations on channels well outside the original groups made their use more widespread, as did the introduction of DVB-T services on six extra channels that were slotted in willy-nilly in most areas without regard to existing receiving installations

During the 1990s the IBA's transmitter network was privatised and sold to National Transcommunications Limited (ntl:), and similarly the BBC's was later sold to Crown Castle International, clearly a group with an ironic sense of humour, since CCI (co-channel interference) is the bane of most broadcasters' lives.

Further shenanigans meant that ntl: became known as Arqiva and CCI as National Grid Wireless (NGW), before the two companies were merged in 2008, with NGW being subsumed into Arqiva.

Aerial groups and channel clusters

Channel Group
A
(Red)
Group
B
(Yellow)
Group
C/D
(Green)
Group
E
(Brown)
Group
K
(Grey)
Group
W
(Black)
Original 4-Network Clusters DVB-T
from
2012
E21             21     DVB-T
E22             : 22   DVB-T
E23             : : 23 DVB-T
E24             24 : : DVB-T
E25             : 25 : DVB-T
E26             : : 26 DVB-T
E27             27 : : DVB-T
E28             : 28 : DVB-T
E29             : : 29 DVB-T
E30             : : : DVB-T
E31             31 : : [1]
E32               32 : [1]
E33                 33 [1]
E34               [1]
E35 Added Added   Added       [1]
E36 Added Added   Added     Reserved for RADAR
E37 Added Added   Added       [1]
E38   Added   Added     Reserved for Radio Astronomy
E39             39     DVB-T
E40             : 40   DVB-T
E41             : : 41 DVB-T
E42             42 : : DVB-T
E43             : 43 : DVB-T
E44             : : 44 DVB-T
E45             45 : : DVB-T
E46             : 46 : DVB-T
E47             : : 47 DVB-T
E48     Added       : : : DVB-T
E49     Added       49 : : DVB-T
E50     Added         50 : DVB-T
E51     Added           51 DVB-T
E52   Added               DVB-T
E53   Added         53     DVB-T
E54             : 54   DVB-T
E55             : : 55 DVB-T
E56             : : : DVB-T
E57             57 : : DVB-T
E58             : 58 : DVB-T
E59             : : 59 DVB-T
E60             60 : : DVB-T
E61             : 61 : [1]
E62             : : 62 [1]
E63             63 : : [1]
E64               64 : [1]
E65                 65 [1]
E66               [1]
E67               [1]
E68               [1]
Channel Group
A
(Red)
Group
B
(Yellow)
Group
C/D
(Green)
Group
E
(Brown)
Group
K
(Grey)
Group
W
(Black)
Original 4-Network Clusters DVB-T
from
2012

Notes:

'Added': These channels have been added to extend the range of the groups at some time.

[1] These channels will be 'sold off' to non-broadcasting users, though they will still be used for DVB-T in adjacent European countries, which means that as well as existing receivers, most new ones bought in the UK will still respond to the full range of Band IV/V signals. Quite how they, and aerial amplification and distribution systems, will behave in the presence of in-band high signal strength digital mobile phone transmissions is not yet known.



Analogue closedown 2008-2012

The right-hand column in the table above shows the channels (E21-E30 and E39-E60) that are available for DVB-T digital terrestrial transmissions following the closure of the System I analogue network, completed on 24 October 2012. The remaining spectrum will be reallocated on a national basis to other services, in much the same way that Bands I and III were in 1985, and they will continue to be used for broadcasting in adjacent countries. The first stage, in 2013, is the incursion on channels above E60 by the so-called "4G" phone companies. Details of their activities may be found on the AT800 web site. Invasion of the spectrum vacated by tv stations using channels E31-E38 is planned for 2018. Meanwhile, Ofcom has announced that in the interim, the sub-band is to be used for addition DVB-T2 transmissions carrying high definition programming.

Information about the analogue closedown is still available on the Digital UK website. Digital UK is the non-profit-making organisation charged with planning and overseeing the change from analogue to digital working.



|Top | Contents | CCIR Systems | Bands | Radio Channels | UK Band Plan | Missing Channel 1 | Bookmarks |

Missing Channel 1?

 

PEOPLE OFTEN stop me in the street and ask why American and Continental European tellies don't have a 'channel 1' position. Now it can be told! There once was a US A1 channel (in fact there have been three), and there was an E1 (and an E1A) in Europe and an F1, but no L1, in France.


A1

This phantom channel had a brief but tortuous history:

The uhf channels start at A14, therefore.

E1

The explanation from the EBU (European Broadcasting Union) is as follows:

The 41-68MHz Band I television allocation was agreed at the 1947 ITU (International Telecommunications Union) conference in 1947, and the first European channel plan was agreed in 1952 at the ITU conference in Stockholm. System B was at that time used by about a dozen stations and only three 7MHz-wide channels could be accommodated within the 27MHz allocation, so they were defined as 47-54MHz, 54-61MHz and 61-68MHz at the top of the band, leaving a 6MHz space empty at the low frequency end. This chunk of spectrum was not officially deleted from the plan until the 1961 Stockholm ITU conference, but in the meantime setmakers and others in the industry seem to have expected something to appear there and had named the other channels E2 - E4.

However, a few transmitters were known to use either 'E1', 40-47MHz, or 'E1A', 41-48MHz, during the 'forties or 'fifties, including ones in Bremen, West Germany, and at the Philips factory in Eindhoven in The Netherlands.


F1/L1

The first French television service was in 1938 on 455-lines from the Eiffel Tower in Paris on channel F1 (vision 42MHz, sound 46MHz, channel width 7.4MHz). That was shut down by the Germans during the occupation and converted to the 441/50 standard, which continued until 1955.

Meanwhile, from 1950 the 819-line service was allocated to channels F2 (which swallowed F1 completely) and F4 in Band I, whereas both odd and even-numbered channels were allocated in Band III. That was because the odd (sound carrier 9.15MHz above vision carrier) and even (sound below vision) channels were overlapped and interleaved on Band III, and there wasn't room to do that in Band I.

In 1985 when the bands were re-engineered for 625 lines the numbering started at L2, though some receivers have an L1 channel position despite there being no transmitters having been allocated that frequency.


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Bookmarks

Television Website Bookmarks

 

Mike Brown/MB21/Ether.net
Andrew Emmerson/Paul Stenning/405 Alive/British Vintage Wireless Society
Keith Hamer
Darren Meldrum
Richard Russell
Justin Smith/Aerials and TV
Andrew Wiseman/625 Room
Bill Wright


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Compiled by Alan Pemberton
Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England
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